Concussion / mild traumatic brain injury

A concussion is a type of mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) caused by a bump, blow, or jolt to the head that causes the brain to quickly move back and forth within the skull. This sudden movement can cause chemical changes in the brain, and can stretch or damage brain cells.

The signs and symptoms of a concussion can be subtle and may not show up immediately. Symptoms can last for days, weeks or even longer. Neuropsychological evaluations can assist with diagnosis of concussions, and can help track the recovery process.

Signs and Symptoms of a concussion

Signs and symptoms immediately after a concussion may include:

  • Headache 
  • Temporary loss of consciousness
  • Confusion or feeling as if in a fog
  • Amnesia surrounding the injury
  • Dizziness or "seeing stars"
  • Ringing in the ears
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Slurred speech
  • Delayed response to questions
  • Appearing dazed

Many symptoms may appear later and persist:

  • Difficulties with memory and concentration
  • Personality changes (e.g. depression, irritability)
  • Sensitivity to light and noise
  • Sleep disturbances
  • Disorders of taste and smell


The neuropsychological evaluation for concussions involves a comprehensive cognitive battery, with emphasis placed on areas of thinking that are often problematic after head injuries. After the evaluation is completed, our providers will provide a report summarizing the results of the evaluation and specific treatment recommendations to support optimal concussion / brain injury recovery.